Wine (Gvino)

Viticulture is an integral part of Georgia’s history. Saint Nino of Cappadocia came to enlighten Georgia with a cross, made of a vine. Even today the vine remains one of the symbols of Christianity in Georgia. It is interesting to note that in the 11th century, in Ikhalto Academy (Kakheti, East Georgia), among others, winemaking was taught. In those times Georgian wine was considered as rather expensive product and was exported abroad in large quantities. Wine was made according to ancient recipes and traditions.

Georgian wine-making history is connected directly to the history, culture and religion of Georgian people. Georgian creative nature and particular love for vine and wine were expressed in Georgian habits, architecture, painting, poetry, songs and other fields of art. History confirms that there existed about 500 breed of grapes on the territory of Georgia. Nowadays 27 of them are remained and widely used.

For Georgian viticulture and winemaking, correct use of unique climate conditions and preserving centuries-old experience and wine production methods is highly important. In Georgia, a country with rich culture of wine-growing and wine-making, the tradition of using the geographical name of the place of origin as the appellation controlled of a wine has a long history.   Traditionally, Georgian wines carry the name of the source region, district or village.

Depending on the color of wine is divided into White, Pink and Red. It depends not only on the type of grape used, but also on the technology of wine.

Depending on the sugar content wine is divided into: 
Dry – sugar content is 0.3%.
Semi-Dry – up to 3%.
Semi-Sweet – up to 8%.
Naturally Sweet – up to 20%.

Wines are divided into varietal, if they are made from one grape variety, and blend – if they include a few varieties.
Depending on the carbon dioxide content of wine is divided into Sparkling and Quiet. Still wines, in turn, are divided on the quality of Ordinary, Vintage (appellations of origin) and Collectable.

Vintage (appellations of origin)  called aged at least one year of high quality wines made from certain varieties of grapes grown in specific wine regions or districts, according to special technology. Vintage wines must be characterized by constant high quality, continuing from year to year.

Nowadays, 18 appellations of origin of Georgian wines have  registered.

 

Appellations controlled of Origin of Georgians red Wines:

 

AKHASHENI Red Semi Dry wineAkhasheni – Appellation controlled red semi-sweet wine.
Winegrowing region: Kakheti region.
Varietal composition: 100% Saperavi.
Grape source: 100% Akhasheni specific viticulture zone.
Color: Intense red.
Aromas: The rich and complex bouquet, with fresh notes of blackberries, cherry and liquorices.
Palate: Very good balance between sweetness and acidity, with flavors of ripe berries, soft tannins, long and pleasant finish.
Food matching: Desserts, fruit, mild cheese.
Serving temperature: 10-12°C.

 

KhvanchkaraKhvanchkara – Appellation controlled red, naturally semi-sweet wine.
Winegrowing region: Racha– Lechkhumi region.
Varietal composition: 50% Alexandrouli, 50% Mudjuretuli.
Grape source: 100% Khvanchkara specific viticulture zone.
Color: Ruby.
Aromas: The complex aromas of red fruit, dominated by Raspberry, Strawberry with some notes of roasted
almonds.
Palate: Wild strawberry is followed by a mellow blend of dried fruit, pomegranate and a touch of caramel, though there’s plenty of lively acidity to keep it fresh and balanced.
Food matching: Desserts, fruits, mild cheeses.
Serving temperature: 10-12°C.

 

KINDZMARAULI Red Semi Dry wineKindzmarauli – Appellation controlled red, naturally semi-sweet wine.
Winegrowing region: Kakheti region.
Varietal composition: 100% Saperavi.
Grape source: 100% Kindzmarauli specific viticulture zone.
Color: Intense ruby.
Aromas: Ripe berries , cherry, blackcurrant, plums, jam.
Palate: Intense,delicate wine, with soft, ripe tannins, great balance between acidity and sugar.
Food matching: Desserts, fruits, mild cheese.
Serving temperature: 10-12°C.

 

KVARELI Red Dry wineKvareli – Appellation controlled red dry wine.
Winegrowing region: Kakheti region.
Varietal composition: 100% Saperavi of Kvareli viticulture district.
Grape source: 100% Kvareli specific viticulture zone.
Color: Dark red with twinkling hints.
Aromas: Complex aromas of aged Saperavi with loads of red and black fruit with scent of smoke and spices.
Palate: Nicely structured, supple first taste is dominated by blackberry. Ripe tannins are in right intensity defining the lingering finish in combination with fruit flavors.
Food matching: Meat dishes, grilled pork and beef, cheeses.
Serving temperature: 10-14°C.

 

MUKUZANI Red Dry wineMukuzani – Appellation controlled red dry wine.
Winegrowing region: Kakheti region.
Varietal composition: 100% Saperavi.
Grape source: 100% Mukuzani specific viticulture zone.
Color: Intense red.
Aromas: The wine shows aromas of black cherry, dark chocolate with sprinkling of vanilla and spice .
Palate: Intense flavor of black berries, plums and spices. It is a complex, well-balanced wine with soft tannins and long, pleasant finish.
Food matching: Meat dishes, grilled pork and beef, cheeses.
Serving temperature: 16-18°C.

 

NAPAREULI Red Dry wineNapareuli – Appellation controlled red dry wine.
Winegrowing region: Kakheti region.
Varietal composition: 100% Saperavi.
Grape source: 100% Napareuli specific viticulture zone.
Color: Intense red.
Aromas: The wine shows fine bouquet of strawberry and spice and a subtle hint of vanilla
Palate: Smooth and mellow texture, with plenty of fruit, liquorice notes, subtle oak and seamless finish with sweet tannin
Food matching: Meat dishes, grilled pork and beef, cheeses.
Serving temperature: 16-18°C.

 

OJALESHI Red Semi Dry wineOjaleshi -Appellation controlled red, semi-sweet wine.
Winegrowing region: Samegrelo region.
Varietal composition: Ojaleshi 100%.
Grape source: 100% Salkhino Specific Viticulture zone.
Color: Light ruby.
Aromas: The nose delivers cherry and raspberry aromas with some notes of crushed pine needles.
Palate: The taste is light and elegant, traditional for this wine, prevailed by red fruits and some herbacious overtones. Finish is delicate and persistent with candied raspberry and mild acidity.
Food matching: Salads, white meats and cheese.
Serving temperature: 12-14°C.

 

SAPERAVI Red Dry wineTeliani– Appellation controlled red dry wine.
Winegrowing region: Kakheti region.
Varietal composition: 80% Saperavi, 20% Cabernet Sauvignon.
Grape source: 100% Teliani Specific Viticulture zone.
Color: Intense red.
Aromas: Wine opens with vivid red fruit-cherry, red currant and strawberry aromas.
Palate: Similar flavors are dominant in mouth, supported by firm, and rich tannin structure. The aftertaste is fresh and powerful, with rich and fruity finish.
Food matching: Roast pork and beef, strong cheese.
Serving temperature: 16-18°C.

 

Appellations controlled of Origin of Georgians white Wines :

 

Atenuri wine-ის სურათის შედეგიAtenuri – Appellation controlled , semi-sweet, white sparkling wine.
Winegrowing region: Kartli region.
Varietal composition: 50% Chinuri, 50% Goruli Mtsvane.
Grape source: 100% Ateni specific viticulture zone.
Color: Light-straw, greenish tinge.
Aromas: Fresh harmonious bouquet of fruit aromas, vigorous sparkling.
Palate: Pronounced fruit sweetness, mostly peach.
Food matching: Aperitif, desserts, fruits, mild cheeses.
Serving temperature: 8-10°C.

 

Gurjaani – Appellation controlled dry white wine.
Winegrowing region: Kakheti region.
Varietal composition: 80% Rkatsiteli and 20% Mtsvane kakhetian.
Grape source: 100% Gurjaani specific viticulture zone.
Color: Light- straw.
Aromas: Fine aroma and distinct bouquet.
Palate: The taste is full and harmonious, with a long finish.
Food Matching: Various cheeses, salads, lamb and poultry
Serving temperature: 10-12°C.

 

Kardenakhi – Appellation controlled fortified white wine.
Winegrowing region: Kakheti region.
Varietal composition: 50% Tkatsiteli, 25% KhiKhvi, 25% Mtsvane kakhetian.
Grape source: 100% Kardanakhi specific viticulture zone.
Color: Characterized by an amber color.
Aromas: A dance fruity bouquet, with dominating apple and Fresh fruit.
Palate: Full bodied, with lots of dried fruits and slight astringency. Lingering and spice aftertaste is supported by firm and ripe tannins.
Food Matching: Various light cheeses, salads, fish, seafood and poultry.
Serving temperature: 12-14°C.

 

Kotekhi wine-ის სურათის შედეგიKotekhi – Appellation controlled dry white wine.
Winegrowing region: Kakheti region.
Varietal composition: 100% Rkatsiteli .
Grape source: 100% Kotekhi specific viticulture zone.
Color: Light- straw.
Aromas: It has an intriguing bouquet ripe apples with the touch of quince and melon.
Palate: The taste is fresh with mild acidity and gently sweet and rounded with dominant notes of candied quince peel.
Food Matching: Aperitif, also served to salads, to dishes based on seafood.
Serving temperature: 10-12°C.

 

Manavi wine-ის სურათის შედეგიManavi – Appellation controlled dry white wine.
Winegrowing region: Kakheti region.
Varietal composition: 100% Mtsvane kakhetian.
Grape source: 100% Manavi specific viticulture zone.
Color: Pale-straw.
Aromas: Fresh fruits and citrus.
Palate: The taste is balanced and harmonious, with a distinguishing varietal aroma, distinct flavor and long finish.
Food Matching: Various light cheeses, salads, fish, seafood and poultry.
Serving temperature: 10-12°C.

 

Sviri wine-ის სურათის შედეგიSviri – Appellation controlled dry white wine.
Winegrowing region: Imereti region.
Varietal composition: 15% Tsitska, 85% Krakhuna.
Grape source: 100% Sviri specific viticulture zone.
Color: Pale-yellow.
Aromas: Harmoniously mixed with quince and fresh fruit aromas.
Palate: Characterized by harmonious taste, with long-lasting ending and a bit of pleasant acidity.
Food Matching: Cheese assorts, fish, cold dishes and boiled meat.
Serving temperature: 12-14°C.

 

Tsinandali – Appellation controlled dry white wine.
Winegrowing region: Kakheti viticulture region.
Varietal composition: 85% Rkatsiteli, 15% Mtsvane.
Grape source: 100% Tsinandali specific viticulture zone.
Color: Pale-straw.
Aromas: Lemon and grapefruit are perfectly combined with vanilla and fried bread notes.
Palate: Full-bodied, with intense flavor of apples, pears, citrus, cedar and vanilla, refreshing acidity and long finish.
Food Matching: Salads, seafood, poultry, dishes with vegetables, fish and white meat.
Serving temperature: 10-12°C.

 

tibaani wine-ის სურათის შედეგიTibaani – Appellation controlled dry white wine.
Winegrowing region: Kakheti region.
Varietal composition: 100% Rkatsiteli.
Grape source: 100% Tibaani specific viticulture zone.
Color: Dark-amber.
Aromas: Sort-specific aroma, well-defined and extracted bouquet.
Palate: The taste is incredibly harmonious, it seems that all its components play a major role.
Food Matching: Poultry, dishes with vegetables, fish and meat.
Serving temperature: 10-12°C.

 

Tvishi – Appellation controlled White semi-sweet wine.
Winegrowing region: RachaLechkhumi region
Varietal composition: Tsolikauri 100%
Grape source: 100% Tvishi Specific Viticulture zone
Color: Light golden color with greenish reflection
Aromas: Quince, pineapple and mint, with subtle scents of honeysuckle and apricot
Palate: Beautifully fresh and zesty, with notes of quince and pear. Crisp and clean aftertaste brings back once more fruity and floral aromas
Food Matching: fruit salads, desserts and other sweets.
Serving temperature: 8-10°C.

 

Vazisubani wine-ის სურათის შედეგიVazisubani – Appellation controlled dry white wine.
Winegrowing region: Kakheti region.
Varietal composition: 85% Rkatsiteli, 15% Mtsvane.
Grape source: 100% Vazisubani specific viticulture zone.
Color: Pale-straw.
Aromas: Intense and elegant fruity aromas with dominant apple and melon.
Palate: Complex, notable flavors of pears, banana and kiwi, with good balance and a subtle piquant bitter flavor on the finish.
Food Matching: Salads, seafood, poultry, dishes with vegetables, fish and meat.
Serving temperature: 10-12°C.

 

Ordinary called young wines that have passed the technological process, whose implementation is carried out not earlier than three months after the grapes.

Georgian ordinary wines

Dry ordinary wines (alcohol 10-13%, sugar <0,3%): Bakhtrioni (white), Bodbe (white), Chinuri (white), Dimi (white), Gareji (white), Gelati (white), Goruli mtsvane (white), Hereti (white), Kakheti (white), Kisi (white), Napareuli (white), Rkatsiteli (white), Sameba (white), Saperavi (red), Shuamta (white), Telavi (White),Tsitska (white), Tsolikauri (white).

Semi-Dry ordinary wines (alcohol 10-13%, sugar 0.5-2.5%): Alaverdi (white), Anakopia (white), Barakoni (red), Mtatsminda (red), Pirosmani (red), Sachino (red), Tbilisuri (white).

Semi-Sweet ordinary wines (alcohol 9,5-11%, sugar 0.5-2.5%): Akhmeta (white), Aladasturi (red), Alazani Valley  (red), Alazani Valley (white), Ckhaveri (white), Savane (white), Tavkveri (red), Tetra (white), Usakhelauri (red).

Hard ordinary wines (alcohol 15-19%, sugar 7-10%): Anaga (white), Iveria (white), Khikhvi (white), Kolkheti (red), Lelo (white), Marabda (white), Sighnaghi (white), Taribana (white).

Vintage wines of high quality, after the expiration of aging in oak barrels or steel tanks, in addition to age in bottle for at least three years, called the collectable.